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PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROL TRAINER MODEL IBL - 29
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PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROL TRAINER MODEL IBL - 29

The Programmable Logic Control Trainer is a training instrument, to study and improve programming skills. Study includes Window based LADDER LOGIC diagram program design. This instrument is used to study the rudiments of PLC operations, interfacing with external devices, evaluate pilot plant project designs etc. Many useful interfaces are professionally built into the system, instead of you searching for components, hand wire them, and assemble them. The PLC trainer system should keep your focus on programming aspects, rather than making you connect varieties of input output devices at their respective terminals thereby distracting your attention during programming. In that way this trainer has complete built-in I/Os for any reasonable system design.

This is a soft PLC trainer. This trainer is connected to an IBM computer using a dedicated interface card, which sits in one of the ISA slot of the motherboard. The system consists of input and output elements and transducers. All the input output elements are logged using programs. The relays, switches, transducers, LEDs, analog I/O, annunciation, in the instrument are. The relays, switches, transducers, LEDs, analog I/O, annunciation, in the instrument are logged or controlled by software. The relays can be connected with any 220V AC operated devices. These devices can be lamps, solenoids, contactors etc. The listings of sample LADDER programs are supplied. The purpose of this is to, provide the student window based tools required to show how LADDER diagrams can be designed, Realization of Logic circuits, Boolean expressions like, AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR, XOR, XNOR, combination logic circuits etc can be evaluated.

This instrument provides required I/O facilities needed to design a PLC program. In short this instrument helps the student to design PLC programs, than using this trainer as a PLC. With this the scope of experimentation increases, when compared with a mere PLC programming trainer, where manufacturer’s programs are verified. Train the students, how to catch a fish, don’t give a fish. This is connected to an IBM or compatible computer, using a dedicated interface card, which requires one ISA slot on the motherboard.

In addition this can be used to interface with several trainers manufactured by us in Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) for

  • Material Sorting Demonstration Trainer,
  • Material Handling Platform Demonstrator
  • Pick and Place with 3 Axis control
  • Garage Control Demonstrator,
  • Lift Simulator
  • Liquid Level Control,
  • Traffic Signal Simulator,
  • DC Motor Speed Control Trainer etc

Specifications:

a) Software:

  • This is a GUI based LADDER LOGIC SOFTWARE. Several manufacturers’ software is Window based but truly looks like DOS based diagrams; this is completely eliminated by GUI design, which is JUST USER FRIENDLY.
  • DRAG AND DROP (D&D) an instruction instead of typing an instruction. This eliminates errors in typing.
  • Ladder diagram looks as it appears in Textbooks,
  • All the instructions are displayed ON-SCREEN during Design time.
  • Each and every element is directly addressed with their NAMES not by numbers or codes, which are very difficult to remember. Ex: At design time, you call a SWITCH#0 in your Ladder program by D&D the component called SWITCH#0, and that’s it, not by typing a few digits numbers or codes.
  • Appropriate LIST boxes (input, output) open as you D&D an instruction in LADDER WORKSPACE.
  • Ladder workspace is 24X240 instruction CELLs are available for your use.
  • TOOL TIP features are available at the end of each instruction prompting you “what to do next”
  • Very user friendly
  • Extensive HELP menu available
  • GUI based STATUS of the entire PLC is displayed during RUN TIME.
  • Programs are saved, retrieved, edited by simply clicking on Menu list box
  • Extensive EDIT features are available.

b) Hardware:

  • TTL Input Switches : 8 Nos.
  • TTL Momentary Switches : 8 Nos.
  • Proximity Switch : 1 No.
  • Optical Transducer (two state) : 1 No.
  • Programmable LEDs : 8 Nos.
  • Analog input 0 to 5V DC : 8 channels
  • Analog output 0 to 5V DC : 1 No.
  • 4 to 20mA Transmitter : 1No.
  • 4 to 20mA Receiver : 1No.
  • Current Meter : 25mA FSD 1No.
  • Voltmeter : 10V FSD 1 No.
  • Annunciator : 4 Nos.
  • Piezo Electric Alarm : 1 bit.
  • Built-in power supply.
  • Dedicated I/O interface card suitable for IBM computer suitable for ISA slot.
  • xperimental programs including SAMPLE LADDER programs.

Note: This trainer uses computer’s CPU for executing programs.

Workspace for Ladder Logic Program:
The diagram shown here is called the workspace. This consists of several options and sub-options, for selecting FILE, EDIT, VIEW, RUN, OPTIONS. Each has a specific function to perform. This frame also contains, Graphical Instruction set, which in-turn has many functions and sub-functions. The graphical instructions can be placed on the workspace, by drag-drop method. The collection of such instructions, placed in the works space form Ladder Logic Programs.

Display Panel :
The display panel shown here appears when RUN instruction is executed. This panel shows the ON/OFF status of the PLC trainer’s Input / Output components, Timers, Counters, Registers, Flags, Transducers used, TTL Inputs, TTL Outputs, Switches, Keys, LEDs, Digital to Analog output, Relays, Annunciators, 4-20mA Current, Receiver and Analog input status by a BAR graph display and also it’s decimal equivalent.


See Enlarge



PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROL TRAINER MODEL IBL - 29
Click to Enlarge
PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROL TRAINER MODEL IBL - 29

The Programmable Logic Control Trainer is a training instrument, to study and improve programming skills. Study includes Window based LADDER LOGIC diagram program design. This instrument is used to study the rudiments of PLC operations, interfacing with external devices, evaluate pilot plant project designs etc. Many useful interfaces are professionally built into the system, instead of you searching for components, hand wire them, and assemble them. The PLC trainer system should keep your focus on programming aspects, rather than making you connect varieties of input output devices at their respective terminals thereby distracting your attention during programming. In that way this trainer has complete built-in I/Os for any reasonable system design.

This is a soft PLC trainer. This trainer is connected to an IBM computer using a dedicated interface card, which sits in one of the ISA slot of the motherboard. The system consists of input and output elements and transducers. All the input output elements are logged using programs. The relays, switches, transducers, LEDs, analog I/O, annunciation, in the instrument are. The relays, switches, transducers, LEDs, analog I/O, annunciation, in the instrument are logged or controlled by software. The relays can be connected with any 220V AC operated devices. These devices can be lamps, solenoids, contactors etc. The listings of sample LADDER programs are supplied. The purpose of this is to, provide the student window based tools required to show how LADDER diagrams can be designed, Realization of Logic circuits, Boolean expressions like, AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR, XOR, XNOR, combination logic circuits etc can be evaluated.

This instrument provides required I/O facilities needed to design a PLC program. In short this instrument helps the student to design PLC programs, than using this trainer as a PLC. With this the scope of experimentation increases, when compared with a mere PLC programming trainer, where manufacturer’s programs are verified. Train the students, how to catch a fish, don’t give a fish. This is connected to an IBM or compatible computer, using a dedicated interface card, which requires one ISA slot on the motherboard.

In addition this can be used to interface with several trainers manufactured by us in Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) for

  • Material Sorting Demonstration Trainer,
  • Material Handling Platform Demonstrator
  • Pick and Place with 3 Axis control
  • Garage Control Demonstrator,
  • Lift Simulator
  • Liquid Level Control,
  • Traffic Signal Simulator,
  • DC Motor Speed Control Trainer etc

Specifications:

a) Software:

  • This is a GUI based LADDER LOGIC SOFTWARE. Several manufacturers’ software is Window based but truly looks like DOS based diagrams; this is completely eliminated by GUI design, which is JUST USER FRIENDLY.
  • DRAG AND DROP (D&D) an instruction instead of typing an instruction. This eliminates errors in typing.
  • Ladder diagram looks as it appears in Textbooks,
  • All the instructions are displayed ON-SCREEN during Design time.
  • Each and every element is directly addressed with their NAMES not by numbers or codes, which are very difficult to remember. Ex: At design time, you call a SWITCH#0 in your Ladder program by D&D the component called SWITCH#0, and that’s it, not by typing a few digits numbers or codes.
  • Appropriate LIST boxes (input, output) open as you D&D an instruction in LADDER WORKSPACE.
  • Ladder workspace is 24X240 instruction CELLs are available for your use.
  • TOOL TIP features are available at the end of each instruction prompting you “what to do next”
  • Very user friendly
  • Extensive HELP menu available
  • GUI based STATUS of the entire PLC is displayed during RUN TIME.
  • Programs are saved, retrieved, edited by simply clicking on Menu list box
  • Extensive EDIT features are available.

b) Hardware:

  • TTL Input Switches : 8 Nos.
  • TTL Momentary Switches : 8 Nos.
  • Proximity Switch : 1 No.
  • Optical Transducer (two state) : 1 No.
  • Programmable LEDs : 8 Nos.
  • Analog input 0 to 5V DC : 8 channels
  • Analog output 0 to 5V DC : 1 No.
  • 4 to 20mA Transmitter : 1No.
  • 4 to 20mA Receiver : 1No.
  • Current Meter : 25mA FSD 1No.
  • Voltmeter : 10V FSD 1 No.
  • Annunciator : 4 Nos.
  • Piezo Electric Alarm : 1 bit.
  • Built-in power supply.
  • Dedicated I/O interface card suitable for IBM computer suitable for ISA slot.
  • xperimental programs including SAMPLE LADDER programs.

Note: This trainer uses computer’s CPU for executing programs.

Workspace for Ladder Logic Program:
The diagram shown here is called the workspace. This consists of several options and sub-options, for selecting FILE, EDIT, VIEW, RUN, OPTIONS. Each has a specific function to perform. This frame also contains, Graphical Instruction set, which in-turn has many functions and sub-functions. The graphical instructions can be placed on the workspace, by drag-drop method. The collection of such instructions, placed in the works space form Ladder Logic Programs.

Display Panel :
The display panel shown here appears when RUN instruction is executed. This panel shows the ON/OFF status of the PLC trainer’s Input / Output components, Timers, Counters, Registers, Flags, Transducers used, TTL Inputs, TTL Outputs, Switches, Keys, LEDs, Digital to Analog output, Relays, Annunciators, 4-20mA Current, Receiver and Analog input status by a BAR graph display and also it’s decimal equivalent.


See Enlarge



PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROL TRAINER MODEL IBL - 29
Click to Enlarge
PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROL TRAINER MODEL IBL - 29

The Programmable Logic Control Trainer is a training instrument, to study and improve programming skills. Study includes Window based LADDER LOGIC diagram program design. This instrument is used to study the rudiments of PLC operations, interfacing with external devices, evaluate pilot plant project designs etc. Many useful interfaces are professionally built into the system, instead of you searching for components, hand wire them, and assemble them. The PLC trainer system should keep your focus on programming aspects, rather than making you connect varieties of input output devices at their respective terminals thereby distracting your attention during programming. In that way this trainer has complete built-in I/Os for any reasonable system design.

This is a soft PLC trainer. This trainer is connected to an IBM computer using a dedicated interface card, which sits in one of the ISA slot of the motherboard. The system consists of input and output elements and transducers. All the input output elements are logged using programs. The relays, switches, transducers, LEDs, analog I/O, annunciation, in the instrument are. The relays, switches, transducers, LEDs, analog I/O, annunciation, in the instrument are logged or controlled by software. The relays can be connected with any 220V AC operated devices. These devices can be lamps, solenoids, contactors etc. The listings of sample LADDER programs are supplied. The purpose of this is to, provide the student window based tools required to show how LADDER diagrams can be designed, Realization of Logic circuits, Boolean expressions like, AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR, XOR, XNOR, combination logic circuits etc can be evaluated.

This instrument provides required I/O facilities needed to design a PLC program. In short this instrument helps the student to design PLC programs, than using this trainer as a PLC. With this the scope of experimentation increases, when compared with a mere PLC programming trainer, where manufacturer’s programs are verified. Train the students, how to catch a fish, don’t give a fish. This is connected to an IBM or compatible computer, using a dedicated interface card, which requires one ISA slot on the motherboard.

In addition this can be used to interface with several trainers manufactured by us in Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) for

  • Material Sorting Demonstration Trainer,
  • Material Handling Platform Demonstrator
  • Pick and Place with 3 Axis control
  • Garage Control Demonstrator,
  • Lift Simulator
  • Liquid Level Control,
  • Traffic Signal Simulator,
  • DC Motor Speed Control Trainer etc

Specifications:

a) Software:

  • This is a GUI based LADDER LOGIC SOFTWARE. Several manufacturers’ software is Window based but truly looks like DOS based diagrams; this is completely eliminated by GUI design, which is JUST USER FRIENDLY.
  • DRAG AND DROP (D&D) an instruction instead of typing an instruction. This eliminates errors in typing.
  • Ladder diagram looks as it appears in Textbooks,
  • All the instructions are displayed ON-SCREEN during Design time.
  • Each and every element is directly addressed with their NAMES not by numbers or codes, which are very difficult to remember. Ex: At design time, you call a SWITCH#0 in your Ladder program by D&D the component called SWITCH#0, and that’s it, not by typing a few digits numbers or codes.
  • Appropriate LIST boxes (input, output) open as you D&D an instruction in LADDER WORKSPACE.
  • Ladder workspace is 24X240 instruction CELLs are available for your use.
  • TOOL TIP features are available at the end of each instruction prompting you “what to do next”
  • Very user friendly
  • Extensive HELP menu available
  • GUI based STATUS of the entire PLC is displayed during RUN TIME.
  • Programs are saved, retrieved, edited by simply clicking on Menu list box
  • Extensive EDIT features are available.

b) Hardware:

  • TTL Input Switches : 8 Nos.
  • TTL Momentary Switches : 8 Nos.
  • Proximity Switch : 1 No.
  • Optical Transducer (two state) : 1 No.
  • Programmable LEDs : 8 Nos.
  • Analog input 0 to 5V DC : 8 channels
  • Analog output 0 to 5V DC : 1 No.
  • 4 to 20mA Transmitter : 1No.
  • 4 to 20mA Receiver : 1No.
  • Current Meter : 25mA FSD 1No.
  • Voltmeter : 10V FSD 1 No.
  • Annunciator : 4 Nos.
  • Piezo Electric Alarm : 1 bit.
  • Built-in power supply.
  • Dedicated I/O interface card suitable for IBM computer suitable for ISA slot.
  • xperimental programs including SAMPLE LADDER programs.

Note: This trainer uses computer’s CPU for executing programs.

Workspace for Ladder Logic Program:
The diagram shown here is called the workspace. This consists of several options and sub-options, for selecting FILE, EDIT, VIEW, RUN, OPTIONS. Each has a specific function to perform. This frame also contains, Graphical Instruction set, which in-turn has many functions and sub-functions. The graphical instructions can be placed on the workspace, by drag-drop method. The collection of such instructions, placed in the works space form Ladder Logic Programs.

Display Panel :
The display panel shown here appears when RUN instruction is executed. This panel shows the ON/OFF status of the PLC trainer’s Input / Output components, Timers, Counters, Registers, Flags, Transducers used, TTL Inputs, TTL Outputs, Switches, Keys, LEDs, Digital to Analog output, Relays, Annunciators, 4-20mA Current, Receiver and Analog input status by a BAR graph display and also it’s decimal equivalent.


See Enlarge



LIQUID LEVEL CONTROL DEMONSTRATOR MODEL IBL - 23
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LIQUID LEVEL CONTROL DEMONSTRATOR MODEL IBL - 23

Using this interface trainer, It is possible to demonstrate how the water level in a tank can be maintained. This instrument consists of a 2 liter water tank. The ON and OFF of the pump is controlled by a relay under program control. Two sensing electrodes monitor a bi-level i.e. lower level and upper level. The height of these electrodes is adjustable within the tank's limit. Control program identifies the status of these electrodes and switches ON or OFF the pump. A manual drain cock drains water from the tank, by turning the wheel valve. This is required to simulate the fall in water level.

Specifications:

  • Adjustable Bi-level sensing electrode.
  • 2 liter water tank, with drain facility.
  • Relay operated special purpose water pump
  • Necessary couplings and tubes.
  • Built-in power supplies.

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FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING TRAINER MODEL IBL-31
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FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING TRAINER MODEL IBL-31

This is a flexible manufacturing system trainer. This can be used with PLC trainer also. This trainer provides very good scope to understand how automation process can be designed. The purpose of the system is to sort out the wooden pieces and metal pieces, which are moving on a conveyor belt by a program. In order to facilitate this, the following systems are built into the system.

a) There are two 12 inch conveyor belts. Each belt moves in the opposite direction of the other belt.
b) Two programmable pneumatic pistons with 5 inch travel.
c) Optical source to detect either metal or wooden moving parts on the conveyor belt when the light beam is cut.
d) A metal detector transducer to detect the metal part moving on the conveyor belt.
e) An external compressed air at 5Kg/cm2 is required to activate the pistons.

In order to accomplish this task, the flexible manufacturing systems is used. For that we need belt conveyor, which is driven by a motor in which the test piece & other piece will move. In order to sort out the metal piece we need a PROXIMITY transducer & OPTICAL transducer and piston to push the pieces for further rotation. Piston is basically a hydraulic one for that we need a compressor to actuate the piston to move the Test piece forward for further rotation.

Principle of Operation:
The test piece (both metal & wooden) will move through belt conveyor driven by a motor in the system. First, the test piece will pass through the OPTICAL transducer and basic principle of transducer is whenever light from the source is obstructed by any object it goes to high state. If any test piece obstructs the light path to transducer from the source, gives signal to piston & piston will move the test piece for further rotation

Once if test piece get passed through the optical transducer it will enter in to PROXIMITY transducer. Principle of proximity transducer is normally it is in high state. Transducer will differentiate the metal piece from the other pieces. Range of detection is about (0 - 5) mm. If it is above the range transducer will not detect metal parts.


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TRAFFIC LIGHT EXPERIMENTAL MODULE MODEL IBL – 19
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TRAFFIC LIGHT EXPERIMENTAL MODULE MODEL IBL – 19

Traffic light control experimental module is made up of array 20 LEDs. The LEDs are physically arranged on the front panel such that, they resemble traffic junction of a road. The traffic moves in all directions of NORTH, SOUTH, EAST and WEST. Colored LEDs are used to simulate RED, GREEN, and AMBER for each direction. In addition, 4 optical sensors are also used to signal the end of simulated traffic flow in each direction. There are LEDs, which simulate the flow of traffic.

Now the student has to write program, following rudiments of traffic signal lights. Each LED is accessible as one bit of I/O ports of 8255. Test programs are supplied along with the kit. More programs are to be written by the student or a trainee. The instrument is supplied with built-in power supply.

Specifications:

  • Traffic: In 4 directions. Movement of traffic simulated by 2 LEDs in each direction.
  • Sensors: 4 optical sensors.
  • Signal: Red, Green and Amber LED in each direction.
  • Every LED and optical sensors are bit-addressable.
  • Built-in power supplies.

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DC MOTOR SPEED CONTROL TRAINER USING CHOPPER DRIVES MODEL IBL-10
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DC MOTOR SPEED CONTROL TRAINER USING CHOPPER DRIVES MODEL IBL-10

The rotational speed of a DC motor is directly proportional to the mean value of its supply voltage when operated under pulsed condition. If the motor is operating at a frequency 'f' and at an

operating voltage of say +24V DC, then the pulse amplitude from the driver has to be 24V DC under all conditions at the given frequency. Under these conditions the speed is dependent on the duty cycle of the pulses from the driver. This type of circuit provides complete speed control from minimum to maximum speeds at reasonably high torque. The trainer makes use of a chopper circuit for speed control. This trainer has all the facilities to vary the speed of the DC motor, observe wave forms at different test points in the circuit, namely at the output of oscillator, amplifier, driver, and at motor terminals. A recording of these observations in terms of amplitudes, pulse width, shape of pulses will provide a good understanding of how speed control can be achieved at different speeds.

This trainer is intended to demonstrate the speed control of a permanent magnet DC motor. This motor is mechanically coupled to a Tacho-Generator. Changing the voltage of armature from 0 to 24VDC controls the DC motor speed. As the voltage varies, the armature current increases and in turn the speed increases.

The change in armature voltage can be changed in this trainer

Either by varying a potentiometer by DC voltage control or
By pulse width modulated CHOPPER DRIVE, or
It is possible to provide external pulses modulation from your circuitry also for exciting the motor. This external pulse modulation can be provided from any external controller like Microprocessor trainers Model MPT-85 or MPT-J-85 or MPT-86, Microcontroller trainer Model MCT-31, PLC trainer Model IM-29 or and Data Acquisition System Trainer Model DAS-1.


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VENDING MACHINE EXPERIMENTAL INTERFACE MODULE MODEL IBL-36
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VENDING MACHINE EXPERIMENTAL INTERFACE MODULE MODEL IBL-36

This interface trainer is intended to demonstrate the methods of demonstrating the material Dispensing methods by LADDER-LOGIC program. This instrument has a common water tank and three special purpose pumps and three indicators to display the presence of 3 dispensing devices. The pumps are activated to dispense the liquid. Whenever each pump is activated a corresponding indicator is illuminated. 4 different Momentary switches provided on the PLC trainer could simulate input signal required for activation. This provides an opportunity for selecting the dispensing device. The annunciator indicator available on the PLC trainer also can be illuminated, and Legend can be written on the Annunciator window using a sketch pen to simulate what type of liquid is currently dispensed. The legend can be LEMON, COLA, TEA, COFFEE etc. PLC Ladder –Logic program has to be activated to enable the other functions like TIMERS, FLAGS, REGISTERS etc.

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CAR PARKING LOT INTERFACE EXPERIMENTAL MODULE MODEL IBL-37
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CAR PARKING LOT INTERFACE EXPERIMENTAL MODULE MODEL IBL-37

This is an experimental interface module. It is possible to simulate the presence or absence of a CAR being parked in the parking lot. This interface module makes use of three Optical interface transducers as input to simulate the presence of a car in the parking lot. Since there are four programmable annunciator display windows on the PLC trainer, any one of the annunciator displays can be programmed to display which car is parked in which position of the parking lot.

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SCADA TRAINER MODEL IBL-SCADA-1
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SCADA TRAINER MODEL IBL-SCADA-1

What is HMI/SCADA
Introduction:

Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) Trainer Model SCADA-1 is a HMI/SCADA trainer. This is intended to study and experIBLent process control application system design using Human Machine Interface (HMI) for Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition. Data acquisition by the very name suggests that it is acquiring a data from a process variable and displaying (supervising) it's status on the computer's screen. It not only should display the status of the process, but also should control output elements according to a fixed algorithm. This acquisition process may be from a control valve's position transducer to detect the % of opening, or control flow rate in a pipeline using signal from a differential pressure transmitter, or control level in a tank by using signals from a level transmitter, or control temperatures at different zones in a distillation column by using signals from temperature transmitters. For that matter any analog/digital signal that is connected to this system can be controlled. HMI is given due IBLportance in all the above processes.

In a complex situation of data logging and control of a plant, it is desirable to display the process graphically as it looks in the plant. For example if a mIBLic diagram of a distillation column, control valve, boiler are shown on the screen of the computer with actual values as it is happening (on line), then the supervisor will understand the condition of the plant more easily. In this approach the process mIBLics on the computer's screen provides a human touch. This is called as Human Machine Interface (HMI). It is definitely not possible to show the entire plant in one screen. Therefore menu driven screens with symbolic representation can be designed to show a portion of a plant at a tIBLe, that too on demand. The system designer will have to specify and decide what operation is required first and what is next. That means he has to prioritize these requirements and design GUI based screens.

Connectivity of Process Components:
Process components in a plant are not confined to a control room alone. They are all housed in the plant at various locations depending on the process requirements, safety considerations, and accessibility for servicing etc. SCADA software makes use of Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE) protocol designed by Microsoft to communicate with process components. The network includes connecting various computers, process elements, controllers, etc. This poses a problem for interconnecting them electrically to a network of computers. In other words the distance from the computer to shop floor may vary from a few meters to a few kilometers. Hence the connectivity has to be planned. The most convenient approach will be multi-drop network because only 2 cables run all along the plant instead of bunch of wires scattered all around the plant. All the process elements are connected to these two wires only through their individual microprocessor controllers. This approach is sIBLilar to connecting many water taps to a common water pipeline. If more taps are required then extend the pipeline and add more taps. When all the taps are open the force with which the water flows through an individual tap reduces. When only one tap is open, the water flows with maxIBLum pressure. This is an analogue to traffic on a data high way on a multi-drop network. When more process elements are connected on this highway the cycle tIBLe or scan increases. It is possible to prioritize access levels.
When all the elements are connected in this fashion it becomes necessary to identify each and every process element on the network. This is sIBLilar to name of person in a classroom. An individual can be addressed by a name and he can be communicated with the teacher. Ofcourse discipline is required for efficient communication. In a multi-drop network the process elements are identified by a generic name called as TAG NUMBER. Every process element will have a unique and defined TAG number. The same number should not be given to any other process element in the network. It is something like two students in a class with the same name, in such a case they will be identified by their nickname or TAG NAME. Because SCADA software will use this information for accessing an independent element either for acquiring data or for control.

In order to integrate these process several SCADA software are available commercially. For example "InTouch WONDERWARE", INTELLUSION FIX etc are some of the commercially available SCADA software. SCADA trainer uses "In Touch WONDERWARE" SCADA software with 32 tags (Demo version).

Communication between process elements and network of computers
When all the elements and concepts are in place, then it becomes necessary to communicate with each other, in a language that a human understand in the same way as it happens and should appear the same way always. In this trainer the student learns what is TAGNAME, ACCESS NAME, APPLICATION NAME, TOPIC NAME, ITEM NAME etc required for communicating with computers. All the modules have RS485 connectivity with the host computer.

A computer with following specifications must be provided by the user for interconnecting SCADA trainer. MinIBLum computer configuration required to work on the above CDs are, MultIBLedia facility with speakers, color monitor set at 800 * 600 pixels, 16 bit high color at least Window 95 / 98 / 2000 operating system, CD ROM drive, 20MB free space on HDD, 32MB RAM.

What does SCADA TRAINER Model SCADA-1 consists of:
SCADA software is ideally suited for large system applications. Since this is a trainer, to teach, experIBLent and understand complexity of SCADA a sIBLple setup is designed. There are three hardware modules with separate software to communicate with DDE server. InTouch Wonderware capable of accessing upto 32 TAGs (demo version) for HMI/SCADA applications are supplied as package. The following are hardware modules.

A. RS232 to RS485 Converter: This is used for connecting the computer with SCADA modules. SCADA modules are connected in multi-drop network to this converter. Each module is placed from the converter at a distance of 300 feet, and 300 feet between each module at the tIBLe of supply. The total distance can be extended upto 1000 meters with additional cable. The baud rate can be set from 1200 bps to 38400 bps. The start bit, number of data bits, stop bit, parity bit is software configurable.

B. Analog Module: This unit is placed at about 300 feet from the converter module. This has six Bi-polar and two uni-polar inputs of 16 bit resolution. It is possible to configure all these analog inputs with DDE (Dynamic Data Exchange) server under 5 levels. They are (150mV, (500mV, (1V, (5V and (10V or 20mA. Once a level is configured, all inputs will assume the same level. The trainer has built-in voltage sources with internal analogue input sIBLulators for connectivity. External signals to all these inputs can be made through terminals. This has programmable watchdog tIBLer are available for host failure protection and device failure protection independently.

C. Digital Module: This module is placed at 300 feet from the analog input module. It has 7 digital inputs and 8 digital open collector outputs with 50mA source. Each input voltage can be in the range of 3.5 - 30VDC. When in internal mode, these are connected to dedicated switches for sIBLulation. When in external mode, digital signal in the range of 3.5 - 30VDC can be given.
Each of the 8 digital outputs are connected to solid state relay capable of switching 230V AC @ 1A.These are also connected to 8 multicolored incandescent lamps in parallel to the power outlets in the rear of the module.

Connectivity:
Between computer and converter: RS232 to RS485 with built-in power supplies, cables and connectors
Between data highway to the Digital module converter: 300 ft, two-wire system.
Between data highway to the Analog module converter: 300 ft, two-wire system.

Specifications:

1. CONVERTER:
Input:
Interface: Standard RS232, 9 pin female D-Type connector.
Speed (in BPS): 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19.2K, 38.4K, RTS
Data format: 9 Bits, 10 Bits, 11 Bits or 12 Bits.
Output:
Interface: RS485, Differential, 2 half duplex wires
Speed (in BPS): 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19.2K, 38.4K, RTS
MaxIBLum RS485 network bus distance = 4000 ft = 1200Met
Isolation:
Isolation voltage: 5000 VRMS
Power supply: Suitable built-in power supply

2. ANALOG MODULE
Interface:
Interface: RS485, Two wires
Speed (in BPS): 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19.2K, 38.4K,
Analog input:
Input type: Differential input with suitable voltage and current sIBLulators on the front panel
Channel number 8.
Resolution: 16 Bits
Unit conversion: mV, V or mA
Voltage range in 5 levels: Possible to configure for any one of the following FSD ranges. The ranges in which they can be configured are, ?10V, ?5V, ?1V, ? 500mV, ?and 150mV. All the analog input terminals, assume the same voltage ranges when configured.
Current measurement: ?20mA
Accuracy: ?0.1% of input source.
Power supply: Suitable built-in power supply

3. DIGITAL MODULE
Interface:
Interface: RS485, Two wires
Speed (in BPS) : 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19.2K, 38.4K,
Digital input
Channel number: 7 Allowable range is 0 to +30V DC
With built in Switch sIBLulators for input purposes.
Logic Level Zero = 0V
Logic level One = +5V DC
MaxIBLum current: 0.5mA
Digital Output:
Channel numbers: 8
Output characteristics: 8 programmable LED indictors provided. These also connect sIBLultaneously to 8 non- polarized relays.
Power handling of each relay:
AC: 230V @ 200mA. (SIBLilar to 40Watts bulb) OR
DC: MaxIBLum 30V DC @ 200mA
Software: In Touch Wonderware with 32 Tags (Demo version), will operate in DDS mode.

Optional Interface ExperIBLental Modules:

Liquid Level Control Demonstrator Model IBL-23
Flexible Manufacturing Trainer Model IBL-31.


See Enlarge



SCADA TRAINER MODEL IBL-SCADA-1
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SCADA TRAINER MODEL IBL-SCADA-1

What is HMI/SCADA
Introduction:

Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) Trainer Model SCADA-1 is a HMI/SCADA trainer. This is intended to study and experIBLent process control application system design using Human Machine Interface (HMI) for Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition. Data acquisition by the very name suggests that it is acquiring a data from a process variable and displaying (supervising) it's status on the computer's screen. It not only should display the status of the process, but also should control output elements according to a fixed algorithm. This acquisition process may be from a control valve's position transducer to detect the % of opening, or control flow rate in a pipeline using signal from a differential pressure transmitter, or control level in a tank by using signals from a level transmitter, or control temperatures at different zones in a distillation column by using signals from temperature transmitters. For that matter any analog/digital signal that is connected to this system can be controlled. HMI is given due IBLportance in all the above processes.

In a complex situation of data logging and control of a plant, it is desirable to display the process graphically as it looks in the plant. For example if a mIBLic diagram of a distillation column, control valve, boiler are shown on the screen of the computer with actual values as it is happening (on line), then the supervisor will understand the condition of the plant more easily. In this approach the process mIBLics on the computer's screen provides a human touch. This is called as Human Machine Interface (HMI). It is definitely not possible to show the entire plant in one screen. Therefore menu driven screens with symbolic representation can be designed to show a portion of a plant at a tIBLe, that too on demand. The system designer will have to specify and decide what operation is required first and what is next. That means he has to prioritize these requirements and design GUI based screens.

Connectivity of Process Components:
Process components in a plant are not confined to a control room alone. They are all housed in the plant at various locations depending on the process requirements, safety considerations, and accessibility for servicing etc. SCADA software makes use of Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE) protocol designed by Microsoft to communicate with process components. The network includes connecting various computers, process elements, controllers, etc. This poses a problem for interconnecting them electrically to a network of computers. In other words the distance from the computer to shop floor may vary from a few meters to a few kilometers. Hence the connectivity has to be planned. The most convenient approach will be multi-drop network because only 2 cables run all along the plant instead of bunch of wires scattered all around the plant. All the process elements are connected to these two wires only through their individual microprocessor controllers. This approach is sIBLilar to connecting many water taps to a common water pipeline. If more taps are required then extend the pipeline and add more taps. When all the taps are open the force with which the water flows through an individual tap reduces. When only one tap is open, the water flows with maxIBLum pressure. This is an analogue to traffic on a data high way on a multi-drop network. When more process elements are connected on this highway the cycle tIBLe or scan increases. It is possible to prioritize access levels.
When all the elements are connected in this fashion it becomes necessary to identify each and every process element on the network. This is sIBLilar to name of person in a classroom. An individual can be addressed by a name and he can be communicated with the teacher. Ofcourse discipline is required for efficient communication. In a multi-drop network the process elements are identified by a generic name called as TAG NUMBER. Every process element will have a unique and defined TAG number. The same number should not be given to any other process element in the network. It is something like two students in a class with the same name, in such a case they will be identified by their nickname or TAG NAME. Because SCADA software will use this information for accessing an independent element either for acquiring data or for control.

In order to integrate these process several SCADA software are available commercially. For example "InTouch WONDERWARE", INTELLUSION FIX etc are some of the commercially available SCADA software. SCADA trainer uses "In Touch WONDERWARE" SCADA software with 32 tags (Demo version).

Communication between process elements and network of computers
When all the elements and concepts are in place, then it becomes necessary to communicate with each other, in a language that a human understand in the same way as it happens and should appear the same way always. In this trainer the student learns what is TAGNAME, ACCESS NAME, APPLICATION NAME, TOPIC NAME, ITEM NAME etc required for communicating with computers. All the modules have RS485 connectivity with the host computer.

A computer with following specifications must be provided by the user for interconnecting SCADA trainer. MinIBLum computer configuration required to work on the above CDs are, MultIBLedia facility with speakers, color monitor set at 800 * 600 pixels, 16 bit high color at least Window 95 / 98 / 2000 operating system, CD ROM drive, 20MB free space on HDD, 32MB RAM.

What does SCADA TRAINER Model SCADA-1 consists of:
SCADA software is ideally suited for large system applications. Since this is a trainer, to teach, experIBLent and understand complexity of SCADA a sIBLple setup is designed. There are three hardware modules with separate software to communicate with DDE server. InTouch Wonderware capable of accessing upto 32 TAGs (demo version) for HMI/SCADA applications are supplied as package. The following are hardware modules.

A. RS232 to RS485 Converter: This is used for connecting the computer with SCADA modules. SCADA modules are connected in multi-drop network to this converter. Each module is placed from the converter at a distance of 300 feet, and 300 feet between each module at the tIBLe of supply. The total distance can be extended upto 1000 meters with additional cable. The baud rate can be set from 1200 bps to 38400 bps. The start bit, number of data bits, stop bit, parity bit is software configurable.

B. Analog Module: This unit is placed at about 300 feet from the converter module. This has six Bi-polar and two uni-polar inputs of 16 bit resolution. It is possible to configure all these analog inputs with DDE (Dynamic Data Exchange) server under 5 levels. They are (150mV, (500mV, (1V, (5V and (10V or 20mA. Once a level is configured, all inputs will assume the same level. The trainer has built-in voltage sources with internal analogue input sIBLulators for connectivity. External signals to all these inputs can be made through terminals. This has programmable watchdog tIBLer are available for host failure protection and device failure protection independently.

C. Digital Module: This module is placed at 300 feet from the analog input module. It has 7 digital inputs and 8 digital open collector outputs with 50mA source. Each input voltage can be in the range of 3.5 - 30VDC. When in internal mode, these are connected to dedicated switches for sIBLulation. When in external mode, digital signal in the range of 3.5 - 30VDC can be given.
Each of the 8 digital outputs are connected to solid state relay capable of switching 230V AC @ 1A.These are also connected to 8 multicolored incandescent lamps in parallel to the power outlets in the rear of the module.

Connectivity:
Between computer and converter: RS232 to RS485 with built-in power supplies, cables and connectors
Between data highway to the Digital module converter: 300 ft, two-wire system.
Between data highway to the Analog module converter: 300 ft, two-wire system.

Specifications:

1. CONVERTER:
Input:
Interface: Standard RS232, 9 pin female D-Type connector.
Speed (in BPS): 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19.2K, 38.4K, RTS
Data format: 9 Bits, 10 Bits, 11 Bits or 12 Bits.
Output:
Interface: RS485, Differential, 2 half duplex wires
Speed (in BPS): 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19.2K, 38.4K, RTS
MaxIBLum RS485 network bus distance = 4000 ft = 1200Met
Isolation:
Isolation voltage: 5000 VRMS
Power supply: Suitable built-in power supply

2. ANALOG MODULE
Interface:
Interface: RS485, Two wires
Speed (in BPS): 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19.2K, 38.4K,
Analog input:
Input type: Differential input with suitable voltage and current sIBLulators on the front panel
Channel number 8.
Resolution: 16 Bits
Unit conversion: mV, V or mA
Voltage range in 5 levels: Possible to configure for any one of the following FSD ranges. The ranges in which they can be configured are, ?10V, ?5V, ?1V, ? 500mV, ?and 150mV. All the analog input terminals, assume the same voltage ranges when configured.
Current measurement: ?20mA
Accuracy: ?0.1% of input source.
Power supply: Suitable built-in power supply

3. DIGITAL MODULE
Interface:
Interface: RS485, Two wires
Speed (in BPS) : 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19.2K, 38.4K,
Digital input
Channel number: 7 Allowable range is 0 to +30V DC
With built in Switch sIBLulators for input purposes.
Logic Level Zero = 0V
Logic level One = +5V DC
MaxIBLum current: 0.5mA
Digital Output:
Channel numbers: 8
Output characteristics: 8 programmable LED indictors provided. These also connect sIBLultaneously to 8 non- polarized relays.
Power handling of each relay:
AC: 230V @ 200mA. (SIBLilar to 40Watts bulb) OR
DC: MaxIBLum 30V DC @ 200mA
Software: In Touch Wonderware with 32 Tags (Demo version), will operate in DDS mode.

Optional Interface ExperIBLental Modules:

Liquid Level Control Demonstrator Model IBL-23
Flexible Manufacturing Trainer Model IBL-31.


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INDUSTRIAL PROCESS CONTROL TRAINER MODEL IBL - 16
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INDUSTRIAL PROCESS CONTROL TRAINER MODEL IBL - 16

The Industrial Process Control trainer is an experimental instrument, to simulate control loops of various processes. The trainer provides scope to simulate parts of sugar plant, Cement plant etc. This experimenter uses actual transducer (commercial grade) with their interface as INPUT elements and control signals to output transducers. The output transducers supplied are listed under "interfaces" heading. All the interfaces are accessible by control software.

The control programs are written in BASIC language for easy understanding. However, popular languages like C, C++, PASCAL, Visual BASIC, Visual C++, etc also can be used. Because they support input and output functions. WINDOW based programs are most commonly used. A simple program for SUGAR plant is supplied as part of experimentation. Program listings are provided. This being an experimental instrument, a student can explore more on this.

WHAT DOES THIS CONTAIN: Industrial Process Control Trainer consists of three parts.

1. An IBM Pentium Compatible Computer.
2. A mobile, 19" rack instrument with 5 bays. This accommodates several input, output transducers and interfaces. They are annunciators, BAR GRAPH, DOT BAR displays, analog simulators, switch simulators, analog to digital and digital to analog converters of different precision, signal conditioners, instrumentation amplifiers, S&H amplifiers, high tension relays, mechanical timer, Electro-mechanical batch counter, Electro mechanical preset switch, 8 bit momentary switches, TTL I/O PORTS, digital current meter, 4-20mA transmitters, dedicated power supplies.
3. Student Patch Panel. This has approximately 120 terminals, for inter connections located on a specially designed worktable. These terminals are named against its function. These terminals are either input or output of various transducers that can be connected to the instrument. A 3'x2' MIMIC panel is mounted vertically on this worktable in the vertical position, to maintain a proper view.
Note: Computer instrument is not supplied as part of the instrument. It has to be procured separately. Any IBM compatible instrument with 200MB HDD and 1.44FDD and a CD ROM drive are sufficient.

Detailed description of facilities:
Facilities are intended to simulate and act, as it happens in any plant. Most of them are software polled or controlled. The element selected for interfacing, represent commonly used elements, in a process. Transducers, input output elements selected for experimentation, may not be required for a given process, however these are provided for completion. As this is an experimental station, it is desired to provide flexibility. Some times the desired transducers may have to be connected at student's patch panel, when logged. All the input and outputs are available at student's patch panel through terminal contacts using patch cords.

Specifications:

  • Annunciator: 12 numbers of annunciators are provided. This is a lamp display of 1"x2" in size, intended to display status of critical functions in a given process. This is illuminated under program control by software.
  • Switch simulator: 12 numbers of software polled binary switches are provided. These switches stay in their position unless changed again. These are used in conjunction with operative programs. These are used to design, inter-lock of a process, or as inputs while designing Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), or to change the sequence or process by the flick of toggle switch etc.
  • Key switches: 8 numbers of software polled momentary key switches function similar to switch inputs except that, these switches come to their original position on release.
  • BAR GRAPH display: 4 independent BAR GRAPH displays are provided. These are analog displays. These indicate the status of a process parameter in terms of display, of temperature, pressure, displacement etc., by displaying a group of LEDs. These are activated by connecting them to outputs of Digital to Analog converters or from an external instrument whose output is not more than 2.4 V DC FSD.
  • DOT BAR display: 4 independent DOT BAR displays are provided. These function in the same manner as BAR GRAPH displays, except glow of one LED from starting position indicate the status of process.
  • Analog simulators: 16 independent analog outputs are available. The variable output voltage (0 to 5v) of each channel can be set, by adjusting the respective pot, and stays there unless adjusted again.
  • Buzzer: software controlled Piezo buzzer provides audio annunciation to set an alarm condition.
  • Batch counter: software controlled Electro-mechanical batch counter is provided. This can be reset at the beginning of a process to zero. As the events take place, the counter keeps counting. This stays in its present position, even if the power fails. Count can go from 0 to 999.
  • Preset switch: 2 digit-preset switch is provided. This can be preset to any value from 0 to 99. This is used for comparison to flag the end of an event. This can be logged by program.
  • Current meters: There are two current meters with 20mA FSD, displayed digitally. These are used to measure current of any transmitter or receiver of any process instruments or hardware.
  • Voltmeter: One digital voltmeter is provided. Range can be set for 2,20 or 200V DC FSD. This is used to test voltages in the instrument during experimentation.
  • 8 Nos. of software controlled, high-tension relays are provided. To each relay, a 220V AC @ 1Amp, operated devices can be connected. 8 independent devices can be connected in the instrument. They can be a water pump, blower, solenoid, contactor, etc.
  • High speed (35uSec), 16 channel, analog inputs can be connected to the instrument. The input can be either 16 channel uni-polar (positive) input voltages or 8 channel bi-polar ±5V input voltages can be connected. This is a 12-bit resolution, analog to digital converter. The analog inputs to the instrument may be from any analog transducer. The transducer may be LVDT, Strain gauge, Load cell etc. After proper signal condition.
  • Slow speed (30Conversions/second), 16 channel, analog to digital converter is provided. The input can be uni-polar or bi-polar as indicated above. The nature of the inputs to these can be from a thermocouple, where the temperature variations, are very slow can be connected. For that matter, any slow response activated transducers can be connected as input to these terminals.
  • Medium speed (100uSec), 16 channel analog input or 8bit resolution is also available. The input voltages for this can be 0 to 5V DC. The purpose of this is same as stated above.
  • 8 numbers of Digital to Analog converters are provided. The output from these can be connected to 4-20mA current receivers, BAR GRAPH or DOT BAR display, or to any analog instrument, which requires variable voltage as excitation signals. The output of these are variable from 0 to +5V DC.
  • 4 numbers of signal conditioners are provided. Each signal conditioner will accept 20mV input and gives out 5V DC at its output terminals. In a way this is an amplifier to the transducers, this can also give voltages more than 20mV. You can connect 4 such independent transducers
  • 4 numbers of 4-20mA current transmitters. The transmitters accepts 0 to 5V DC at it's input terminals and gives 4 to 20mA at it's output terminals. The output current is proportional to input voltage. I.e. For an input of 0V DC the output is 4mA DC and for an input of 5V DC the output is 20mA.
  • 8 bit TTL input port is provided. This is software configurable. The outputs can be used to activate any digital hardware.
  • A 1-hour mechanical timer with normally closed contact is provided. The contact closes on setting the timer and opens at the end of set time. Any device with, 220V AC @ 100mA can be connected to this contact.
  • Special purpose student's patch panel is provided. This is the place where the student starts inter connecting all the transducers that are required in the control instrument.

Mimic Panel:
A MIMIC panel in plant is used to display the status of the process at any given time, watching from a distance. Often decisions are taken by the operator, on looking at this panel. While the computer's screen can still display, part of this panel, still some thing is missed, without this large mechanical display. A programmable and reconfigurable mimic panel is available to light up the sequence and status of operations under control. This is in addition to the process diagram displayed on the computer's screen. The need of the mimic panel is to simulate the actual happenings, as viewed in the control room of the plant. This panel is approximately 3'x2' in size. Various multi color process diagrams, drawn on tracing sheet, can be inserted in the mimic panel. The process diagrams can be heat exchangers, clarifiers, distillation columns, cooling towers, heaters, motors, process indicators etc. 16 programmable lamps are used to light behind each process diagram, on the mimic panel. These lamps can be placed behind the process diagrams. All 16 lamps can be placed anywhere on the mimic panel, as provision is made in a grid form, to hold the lamp holders in position.

Transducers provided are:
All transducers are provided with the interface electronics, power supplies. All these are contained in the 19" rack. The output of these transducers after conditioning is connected as input to any analog to digital converter on the patch panel.

1. LVDT Transducer with 10mm displacement capability.
2. Proximity Transducer with a detection range of 5mm with necessary interface electronics
3. An optical transducer to detect, presence or absence of ambient light impinging on the transducer.
4. Water level controllers with all accessories are provided. The height of these can be adjusted to any desired level. A water tank of approximately 10Lt capacity is provided. A special purpose water pump is also provided. All these are connected together. The sensor can be logged and level can be controlled.
5. A K-type thermocouple instrument is provided to measure the temperatures.
6. A high-tension contactor is provided. This has contact rating upto 15A @ 220V AC.
7. A special purpose MIMIC panel of approximately 3'x2' is provided. The purpose of this is to display process trends with software controlled mimic lamps. The process diagrams are drawn on a tracing sheet and inserted in a transparent, and double walled acrylic sheets. The process diagrams can be heat exchanger, clarifiers, tanks, motors etc.
8. Stepper motor, with specially built conveyer belt instrument is provided. This is used to simulate the actual transportation of material on the conveyer. A proximity transducer (metal detector) or optical transducer can be introduced to act as a feedback instrument.


See Enlarge



PRESSURE CONTROL LOOP TRAINER MODEL IBL-1
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PRESSURE CONTROL LOOP TRAINER MODEL IBL-1

The Pressure Control Loop Trainer Model PCLT-1 is a WINDOW based system. This is intended to study and experiment, on methods to maintain a constant pressure, in a pressure vessel. The pressure in a pressure vessel may fall, if the air is withdrawn by an external instrument or vented out. Therefore, there is a fall in pressure. It is necessary to regain the lost pressure in the pressure vessel back to original (predetermined) pressure in the shortest time. A controller achieves this. Proportional (P) and Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controllers are used to achieve this.

To study control dynamics, a pressure vessel is used. The PCLT-1 has all the monitoring and control elements to study and experiment the above objective. The instrument helps the student/trainee to study the dynamics of control valve, valve positioning mechanism, pressure measurement of the valve, simulation of fault / disturbance, valve characteristics, hysterisis, linearity error, response time and closed loop analysis.

The Pressure Control Loop Trainer consists of:
1. An IBM PC/XT/AT/PS-1 computer or compatible instrument, with atleast one ISA slots for inserting dedicated Input output card. Supply of computer is not in the scope of supply. This must be supplied at your cost at the time of installation.
2. A dedicated interface Data Acquisition Instrument in the front panel assembly.
3. Pressure Loop Trainer on movable stand.

In order to assist in conducting the experiment, several WINDOW based features are provided. They are:
This is the process screen. This screen is used to do the following

Input Parameters:
1. Set point
Of desired level in PSI or
Set the variable set point by using function generator inputs as SINE, SQUARE, TRIANGLE, SAW TOOTH.
2. Set the Proportional (kp) gain in the range of 1 to 100%
Set the Integral (ki) gain in the range of 1 to 100%
Set the Differential (kd) gain in the range of 1 to 100%
Sampling time in terms of mS.

Output Parameters: These are displayed in response to the above parameters. These are displayed as a function of comparing the feedback parameters.

Process variable in Cms
Controlling variable that is responsible for controlling the process to restore close to the set point.
Graphs: These are stored dynamically, and will be displayed any time. When “show graph” option is selected, the controlling

process stops, and gets ready to display the trend. There are varieties of statical graphs that can be generated as a consequence of data logging. These graphs can also be printed.
How to view the graphs: The following possibilities are available to view the graph. They are:

Show Combined Graph: When this option is selected, all the process parameters appear in a single graph, as shown here. All the three parameters overlap one above the other. In this mode all the three parameters namely setpoint process variable, and Controlling force are all displayed in the same screen.

Show Individual Graph: When this option is selected, the process parameters are displayed as individual graphs in the same screen, as shown below. This distinguishes one graph from the other.

Show Complete Graph: When this option is selected, the whole run is displayed at once, as shown below. When this is selected, the complete trend from the start is displayed.

Zoom: This feature allows the user to zoom into a specific portion of the graph. Move the cursor to the point where you want the zoomed portion to start, as shown below.

Insert markers: A marker will appear as a gray line on the graph. For each marker, indicator labels appear, indicating the values of the corresponding process parameters. By inserting markers, a specific portion of the trend may be observed more closely. This option is necessary as, some times the process takes long time to settle down. At this time, it is a good method to move your cursor to a specific portion of your process and view that zone, which is critical for analysis.

Using this trainer, we can perform the following experiments.
There are independent study programs to understand the above rudiments, both for open loop and closed loop controls, in the form of EXPERIMENTS listed here. Each experiment is designed to highlight one or more important aspects of data logging and control. The communication between the computer and the pressure control loop trainer is through 4-20mA current transmitter (TX) and receiver (Rx). Hence all control/measurement parameters (Viz.) positioning the stem of control valve, pressure in the PV are all co-related in terms of 4-20mA only, because the display on computer should appear in engineering units.
The following experiments help in understanding the techniques to measure, compute, control, display and store on-line. These programs are supplied in BASIC Language.

Study a program to tabulate a relationship between DAC and the 4-20mA current generated, which activates I/P converter.
Study a program to read stem position and record the actual displacement to create a Data file for future use.
Study program to determine the displacement from previous position to the current position.
Study a program to position the stem of control valve anywhere from 0-100% opening/closing with a time delay (Td), not exceeding cycle time.
Study a program to measure the valve dynamics in moving from 0-100% opening/closing using a stopwatch.
Study a program to determine the relationship between I/P converter to that of control valve.
Study a program to tabulate the controller setting of I/P Vs the displacement of control valve in mm
Study a program to display ON-LINE pressure directly.
Study a program to determine the relationship of valve position (mm) to the actual pressure measured at pressure transducer gauge (Kg.cm2)
Execute Proportional (P) control program and observe a change in the pressure indicator and control valve position, for disturbance created by venting the air of pressure vessel into atmosphere.
Execute the above Proportional and Integral (PI) controls and observe the trend on the computer's display.
To aid the above tasks, the instrument is provided with momentary switches, which can be programmed to actually open or close solenoid valves to simulate faults at the inlet and outlet of the pressure loop. 4-20mA current meters to study behavior of I/P converter, stem position of the control valve, and measure pressure of pressure transducer gauge. There are pressure gauges at appropriate places, solenoid valves, hand operated changeover switches, air filter regulators, couplings etc.

The instrument offers enough scope to write control programs in any language: like PASCAL, ASSEMBLER, C, C++, BASIC, TURBO C, TURBO BASIC etc as long as they support I/O instructions. The documentation provides study programs in BASIC with necessary comments. Window based software on CD includes Proportional (P), Proportional Integral (PI) and Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controls, trend charts.

Specifications:

FESTO make couplings and fittings are used.
a) Control Valve:
Size : 15mm.
Type : 2way s/seat.
Body : A216Gr.WCB
Stroke : 14.3mm
Air Failure : open.
Max Incremental
Pressure in closed :30 PSI position
Air connection : Brass.

b) Electro-Pneumatic Converter:
Input Signal : 4-20mA DC.
Input Resistance : 90 ohms ±5 ohms.
Output Pressure : 3-15 PSI.
Characteristics : Linear to input current.
Air supply : 1Kg/cm2.
Consumption : 30L/hr typical.
Pressure Connection : 1/4" NPT thread.
Mounting Method : wall.
Mounting Position : Horizontal.

c) Pressure Transmitter:
Input : 3 – 15PSI
Output :4-20mA DC.
Maximum working Pr :29 PSI
Enclosure :W/P
Mounting :Direct On line
Sensor and Wetted parts: SS 316

d) Filter Regulator:
Quantity used : 2 nos.
Service medium : Air.
Indicator : Graduated pressure gauge.
Max Pressure : upto 250 PSI.
Max input rating : 18Kg/cm2.
Outlet Pressure : 0-30 PSI (0-2.1) Kg/cm2.
Size of output hose : 1/4".
Ambient Temperature : upto 80° C.

f) Pressure Vessels:
Quantity : 1 No
Housing :Chromium plated MS
Service : Air
Capacity : 1 Lt
Max Pressure : upto 2Kg/cm2.
Connection : 1/4"BSP external thread.

g) Pressure Gauges:
Quantity : 4Nos
Pressure : 3-15PSI.
Size : 1/4"BSP external thread.

h) Rotometer:
Service : Air.
Flow Range : 0-100 LMP.
Max.Pressure : 10Kg/cm2.
Metering tube : Boro-silicate glass.
Float SS304.
Packing Neoprene.
Needle Valve : Provided integral.
End connection size : 1/4" NPT (F).

i) Solenoid:
Quantity : 2 nos.
Service : Air.
Type : 2/2 way Normally closed.
Pipe size : 1/4".
Orifice size : 6mm.
Flow factor (Kv) : 0.4.
Coil type : 230V AC.

j) Meters:
Quantity : 2 nos.
Type : Moving coil.
Range : 0-25mA.
Purpose :To monitor.

What you must provide the following facilities at your cost, at the time of installation:

You have to provide compressed air @ 5kg/cm2 from your in-house compressor.
Constant water line to be provided by you for filling the water tank and discharge pipelines must be provided to drain the water from the tank after the completion of the experiment.
You must provide an IBM Computer or Compatible system. It must have at least one vacant ISA slot on the motherboard, to enable the ADD-ON card to be inserted, which will communicate with the trainer. The minimum configuration of the system must be any Intel make standard CPU, 32MB RAM, one 1.44”FDD, HDD with any capacity, CD ROM drive, and a color monitor.
You must provide the necessary electrical fittings at 230V AC single phase, and accessories, observing all the safety standard features, like circuit breakers, safety switches and fuses etc, so that the operator will work under safe environment. Proper electrical grounding (earth) must be provided to the instrument setup as a whole.
This requires 10 Sq.ft floor space for conducting experiments by the students or trainee.
Good electrical connection, with proper earthing is required.
Mobility: Mounted on robust caster wheels
Dimensions: 4' X 2' X 6' (L, B, H)
Specifications are subject to change without notice. Changes in specifications may be effected even after receiving confirmed purchase ORDER.


See Enlarge



PRESSURE CONTROL LOOP TRAINER MODEL IBL-1
Click to Enlarge
PRESSURE CONTROL LOOP TRAINER MODEL IBL-1

The Pressure Control Loop Trainer Model PCLT-1 is a WINDOW based system. This is intended to study and experiment, on methods to maintain a constant pressure, in a pressure vessel. The pressure in a pressure vessel may fall, if the air is withdrawn by an external instrument or vented out. Therefore, there is a fall in pressure. It is necessary to regain the lost pressure in the pressure vessel back to original (predetermined) pressure in the shortest time. A controller achieves this. Proportional (P) and Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controllers are used to achieve this.

To study control dynamics, a pressure vessel is used. The PCLT-1 has all the monitoring and control elements to study and experiment the above objective. The instrument helps the student/trainee to study the dynamics of control valve, valve positioning mechanism, pressure measurement of the valve, simulation of fault / disturbance, valve characteristics, hysterisis, linearity error, response time and closed loop analysis.

The Pressure Control Loop Trainer consists of:
1. An IBM PC/XT/AT/PS-1 computer or compatible instrument, with atleast one ISA slots for inserting dedicated Input output card. Supply of computer is not in the scope of supply. This must be supplied at your cost at the time of installation.
2. A dedicated interface Data Acquisition Instrument in the front panel assembly.
3. Pressure Loop Trainer on movable stand.

In order to assist in conducting the experiment, several WINDOW based features are provided. They are:
This is the process screen. This screen is used to do the following

Input Parameters:
1. Set point
Of desired level in PSI or
Set the variable set point by using function generator inputs as SINE, SQUARE, TRIANGLE, SAW TOOTH.
2. Set the Proportional (kp) gain in the range of 1 to 100%
Set the Integral (ki) gain in the range of 1 to 100%
Set the Differential (kd) gain in the range of 1 to 100%
Sampling time in terms of mS.

Output Parameters: These are displayed in response to the above parameters. These are displayed as a function of comparing the feedback parameters.

Process variable in Cms
Controlling variable that is responsible for controlling the process to restore close to the set point.
Graphs: These are stored dynamically, and will be displayed any time. When “show graph” option is selected, the controlling

process stops, and gets ready to display the trend. There are varieties of statical graphs that can be generated as a consequence of data logging. These graphs can also be printed.
How to view the graphs: The following possibilities are available to view the graph. They are:

Show Combined Graph: When this option is selected, all the process parameters appear in a single graph, as shown here. All the three parameters overlap one above the other. In this mode all the three parameters namely setpoint process variable, and Controlling force are all displayed in the same screen.

Show Individual Graph: When this option is selected, the process parameters are displayed as individual graphs in the same screen, as shown below. This distinguishes one graph from the other.

Show Complete Graph: When this option is selected, the whole run is displayed at once, as shown below. When this is selected, the complete trend from the start is displayed.

Zoom: This feature allows the user to zoom into a specific portion of the graph. Move the cursor to the point where you want the zoomed portion to start, as shown below.

Insert markers: A marker will appear as a gray line on the graph. For each marker, indicator labels appear, indicating the values of the corresponding process parameters. By inserting markers, a specific portion of the trend may be observed more closely. This option is necessary as, some times the process takes long time to settle down. At this time, it is a good method to move your cursor to a specific portion of your process and view that zone, which is critical for analysis.

Using this trainer, we can perform the following experiments.
There are independent study programs to understand the above rudiments, both for open loop and closed loop controls, in the form of EXPERIMENTS listed here. Each experiment is designed to highlight one or more important aspects of data logging and control. The communication between the computer and the pressure control loop trainer is through 4-20mA current transmitter (TX) and receiver (Rx). Hence all control/measurement parameters (Viz.) positioning the stem of control valve, pressure in the PV are all co-related in terms of 4-20mA only, because the display on computer should appear in engineering units.
The following experiments help in understanding the techniques to measure, compute, control, display and store on-line. These programs are supplied in BASIC Language.

Study a program to tabulate a relationship between DAC and the 4-20mA current generated, which activates I/P converter.
Study a program to read stem position and record the actual displacement to create a Data file for future use.
Study program to determine the displacement from previous position to the current position.
Study a program to position the stem of control valve anywhere from 0-100% opening/closing with a time delay (Td), not exceeding cycle time.
Study a program to measure the valve dynamics in moving from 0-100% opening/closing using a stopwatch.
Study a program to determine the relationship between I/P converter to that of control valve.
Study a program to tabulate the controller setting of I/P Vs the displacement of control valve in mm
Study a program to display ON-LINE pressure directly.
Study a program to determine the relationship of valve position (mm) to the actual pressure measured at pressure transducer gauge (Kg.cm2)
Execute Proportional (P) control program and observe a change in the pressure indicator and control valve position, for disturbance created by venting the air of pressure vessel into atmosphere.
Execute the above Proportional and Integral (PI) controls and observe the trend on the computer's display.
To aid the above tasks, the instrument is provided with momentary switches, which can be programmed to actually open or close solenoid valves to simulate faults at the inlet and outlet of the pressure loop. 4-20mA current meters to study behavior of I/P converter, stem position of the control valve, and measure pressure of pressure transducer gauge. There are pressure gauges at appropriate places, solenoid valves, hand operated changeover switches, air filter regulators, couplings etc.

The instrument offers enough scope to write control programs in any language: like PASCAL, ASSEMBLER, C, C++, BASIC, TURBO C, TURBO BASIC etc as long as they support I/O instructions. The documentation provides study programs in BASIC with necessary comments. Window based software on CD includes Proportional (P), Proportional Integral (PI) and Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controls, trend charts.

Specifications:

FESTO make couplings and fittings are used.
a) Control Valve:
Size : 15mm.
Type : 2way s/seat.
Body : A216Gr.WCB
Stroke : 14.3mm
Air Failure : open.
Max Incremental
Pressure in closed :30 PSI position
Air connection : Brass.

b) Electro-Pneumatic Converter:
Input Signal : 4-20mA DC.
Input Resistance : 90 ohms ±5 ohms.
Output Pressure : 3-15 PSI.
Characteristics : Linear to input current.
Air supply : 1Kg/cm2.
Consumption : 30L/hr typical.
Pressure Connection : 1/4" NPT thread.
Mounting Method : wall.
Mounting Position : Horizontal.

c) Pressure Transmitter:
Input : 3 – 15PSI
Output :4-20mA DC.
Maximum working Pr :29 PSI
Enclosure :W/P
Mounting :Direct On line
Sensor and Wetted parts: SS 316

d) Filter Regulator:
Quantity used : 2 nos.
Service medium : Air.
Indicator : Graduated pressure gauge.
Max Pressure : upto 250 PSI.
Max input rating : 18Kg/cm2.
Outlet Pressure : 0-30 PSI (0-2.1) Kg/cm2.
Size of output hose : 1/4".
Ambient Temperature : upto 80° C.

f) Pressure Vessels:
Quantity : 1 No
Housing :Chromium plated MS
Service : Air
Capacity : 1 Lt
Max Pressure : upto 2Kg/cm2.
Connection : 1/4"BSP external thread.

g) Pressure Gauges:
Quantity : 4Nos
Pressure : 3-15PSI.
Size : 1/4"BSP external thread.

h) Rotometer:
Service : Air.
Flow Range : 0-100 LMP.
Max.Pressure : 10Kg/cm2.
Metering tube : Boro-silicate glass.
Float SS304.
Packing Neoprene.
Needle Valve : Provided integral.
End connection size : 1/4" NPT (F).

i) Solenoid:
Quantity : 2 nos.
Service : Air.
Type : 2/2 way Normally closed.
Pipe size : 1/4".
Orifice size : 6mm.
Flow factor (Kv) : 0.4.
Coil type : 230V AC.

j) Meters:
Quantity : 2 nos.
Type : Moving coil.
Range : 0-25mA.
Purpose :To monitor.

What you must provide the following facilities at your cost, at the time of installation:

You have to provide compressed air @ 5kg/cm2 from your in-house compressor.
Constant water line to be provided by you for filling the water tank and discharge pipelines must be provided to drain the water from the tank after the completion of the experiment.
You must provide an IBM Computer or Compatible system. It must have at least one vacant ISA slot on the motherboard, to enable the ADD-ON card to be inserted, which will communicate with the trainer. The minimum configuration of the system must be any Intel make standard CPU, 32MB RAM, one 1.44”FDD, HDD with any capacity, CD ROM drive, and a color monitor.
You must provide the necessary electrical fittings at 230V AC single phase, and accessories, observing all the safety standard features, like circuit breakers, safety switches and fuses etc, so that the operator will work under safe environment. Proper electrical grounding (earth) must be provided to the instrument setup as a whole.
This requires 10 Sq.ft floor space for conducting experiments by the students or trainee.
Good electrical connection, with proper earthing is required.
Mobility: Mounted on robust caster wheels
Dimensions: 4' X 2' X 6' (L, B, H)
Specifications are subject to change without notice. Changes in specifications may be effected even after receiving confirmed purchase ORDER.


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LEVEL CONTROL LOOP TRAINER MODEL IBL-1
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LEVEL CONTROL LOOP TRAINER MODEL IBL-1

Level Control Process Loop Trainer Model LVL-1 is intended to study the level control dynamics under closed loop control. This equipment finds applications in Instrumentation laboratory and training organizations. Using this trainer one can study the rudiments of level control. The level control loop trainer has all the required hardware and software needed for controlling level in a tank. The instrument consists of a cylindrical water tank of approximately 30cm high water column with

16cm diameter. A centrifugal pump water from a built-in sump, through a control valve and a Rotometer into this tank. The control valve regulates the rate of flow under software command. A Rotometer displays the flow rate. The level of water in the water tank is displayed by a separate 30cm high sight glass tube. A level transmitter produces current in the range of 4mA to 20mA proportional to the height of water column in the water tank. This level transmitter is used as feedback transducer, to communicate the level to the controller in terms of current.

The controller (software driven) determines the current water level. The difference in desired level and current water level is computed. Based on this information the controller determines the desired control action. If the current water level is below the desired level, the control valve allows more water to flow into the tank. As the error reduces, the flow of the water reduces, thus achieving a PID control. If the current water level is above the desired level, a solenoid valve automatically opens and allows the excess water present in the water tank to drain. Hence, the desired level is achieved. In order to provide a disturbance, a hand valve is used. On opening this hand valve, the water from the water tank is discharged into the sump directly, resulting in fall in water level in the tank.
In order to assist in conducting the experiment, several WINDOW based features are provided. They are:

This is the process screen. This screen is used to do the following

Input Parameters:
1. Set point of desired level in Cms or
Set the variable set point by using function generator inputs as SINE, SQUARE, TRIANGLE, SAW TOOTH.
2. Set the Proportional (kp) gain in the range of 1 to 100%
Set the Integral (ki) gain in the range of 1 to 100%
Set the Differential (kd) gain in the range of 1 to 100%
Sampling time in terms of mS.

Output Parameters:These are displayed in response to the above parameters. These are displayed as a function of comparing the feedback parameters.
1. Process variable in Cms
2. Controlling variable that is responsible controlling the process to restore close to the set point.
Graphs: These are stored dynamically, and will be displayed any time. When show graph option is selected, the controlling process stops, and gets ready to display the

trend. There are varieties of statical graphs that can be generated as a consequence of data logging. These graphs can also be printed.

How to view the graphs: The following possibilities are available to view the graph. They are:
Show Combined Graph : When this option is selected, all the process parameters appear in a single graph, as shown below. All the three parameters overlap one above the other. In this mode all the three parameters namely (a) setpoint (b) process variable, and (c) Controlling force are all displayed in the same screen.

Show Individual Graph: When this option is selected, the process parameters are displayed as individual graphs in the same screen, as shown below. This distinguishes one graph from the other.

Show Combined Graph : : When this option is selected, the whole run is displayed at once, as shown below. When this is selected, the complete trend from the start is displayed.

Zoom: This feature allows the user to zoom into a specific portion of the graph. Move the cursor to the point where you want the zoomed portion to start, as shown below.

Insert markers: A marker will appear as a gray line on the graph. For each marker, indicator labels appear, indicating the values of the corresponding process parameters. By inserting markers, a specific portion of the trend may be observed more closely. This option is necessary as, some times the process takes long time to settle down. At this time, it is a good method to move your cursor to a specific portion of your process and view that zone, which is critical for analysis.

Using this trainer, we can perform the following experiments.

1. Study characteristics of a level transmitter. I.e. relation between water level and the current generated by the level transmitter. Plot a graph LEVEL Vs CURRENT. This information is useful to design lookup table, while designing a controller.
2. Study a program to tabulate a relationship between a digital to analog converter (DAC), and the 4 - 20mA current generated. This current can be monitored on an analog and digital indicators. Tabulate this relation DAC number Vs current output (4 - 20mA). Plot a graph. This information is useful in setting a control function to I - P converter.
3. Study a program to understand the relation between current to pressure conversion. In this program, 4 to 20mA currents are used to activate a current to pressure (I to P) converter. For 4mA current, the I-P converter provides 3 PSI (0.2kg/cm2) at it's output port. For 20mA current the output pressure will be 15PSI (1 Kg/cm2). Plot a graph.
4. Study a program to activate the solenoid. This study demonstrates how to discharge water from the water tank.
5. Study a program to change the stem position of control valve, under software control. The stem of the control valve changes its position from one extreme position to the other (usually 0 to 10-15mm) under air pressure. For 3PSI, the stem is in initial position, i.e., and 0mm. For 15PSI, the stem changes its position to the other end. This up/down movement causes, valve to open and close. This action changes the water flow through the pipeline. The water flow can be changed in the range of 3 to 10 Liters/min (LPM). This demonstrates how to change water flow pattern by software.
Tabulate the input pressure (3-15 PSI) VS stem position (0 - 10mm). Plot a graph
6. Study a program to measure, rate of change in the stem's position from 0% to 100% open and 100% to 0% open. This will be used later to study dynamics of control valve. This program demonstrates how quickly water flow can be changed. Plot a graph
7. Study a program to measure the change in water flow rate by observing Rotometer, for different control valve settings.
The setting can be from 0% to 100% open condition and 100% to 0% open.
Tabulate the flow rate (3 to 10LPM) VS valve position (0 to 100%). Plot a graph.
8. RUN PID CONTROL PROGRAM.
Many more experiments can be conducted in the above equipment, as every input and output element is accessible by software. You can formulate an experimental scheme to suit your syllabi needs.

Specifications:

a) Control Valve:
Fluid : Water.
Body form : Globe
Size body/port/Cv : 1/2"- 1/4" - 2.0Gpm.
Body material : A216 Gr.WCB
Trim form / Material : Contoured / SS316.
Flow chart/Direction : Linear
Actuator type : Diaphragm.
Spring Range : 0.2 - 1.0 Kg/cm2.
Valve action : Air to open.
Total stem travel : 14.3mm.

b) Hand Operated Valves:
Quantity : 1 nos.
Size :1/2".
Coating : Nickel.
Type : Close open close.

c) Level Transmitter:
Probe type : Stillwell rod
Probe size : ¼” dia
Probe material : ss304
Probe insulation : Teflon Insulated
Enclosure : Weather proof

d) Electro-Pneumatic Converter:
Input : 4-20mA.
Output : 3-15 PSI.
Input Resistance : 90 Ohms.
Characteristics : Linear to input current.
Air Supply : 1.4Kg/cm2.
Consumption : 30 L/Hr typical.
Pressure : 1.4 bar.
Connection : 1/4" NPT.
Mounting : Wall.

e) Air Filter Regulator:
Service Media : Air
Indicator : Pr gauges
Max input : 10Kg/cm2.
Hose connection : 1/4" BSP.

f) Solenoid:
Service : Water.
Coil voltage : 220 VAC.
Service connection : 1/2".

g) Current Meters:
Analog : 25mA FSD –2 Nos

h) Rotometer:
Service : Water.
Connection : 1/2".

Range : 0 to 10.5 LPM.
Metering tube : Borosilicate.
Float : SS 304.
Needle : Provided, integral.

i) Water Pump:
Voltage : 220V AC.
Lift : 2000 Lt./Hr to 20Meters high.
Service : Water
Connection : 3/4" upstream.
1/2" reduced for downstream.

j) Water Tank (sump):
Capacity : 25 Lt.

What you must provide the following facilities at your cost, at the time of installation:
You have to provide compressed air @ 5kg/cm2 from your in-house compressor.
Constant water line to be provided by you for filling the water tank and discharge pipelines must be provided to drain the water from the tank after the completion of the experiment.
You must provide an IBM Computer or Compatible system. It must have at least one vacant ISA slot on the motherboard, to enable the ADD-ON card to be inserted, which will communicate with the trainer. The minimum configuration of the system must be any Intel make standard CPU, 32MB RAM, one 1.44”FDD, HDD with any capacity, CD ROM drive, and a color monitor.
You must provide the necessary electrical fittings at 230V AC single phase, and accessories, observing all the safety standard features, like circuit breakers, safety switches and fuses etc, so that the operator will work under safe environment. Proper electrical grounding (earth) must be provided to the instrument setup as a whole.
This requires 10 Sq.ft floor space for conducting experiments by the students or trainee.
Good electrical connection, with proper earthing is required.
Mobility: Mounted on robust caster wheels
Dimensions: 4' X 2' X 6' (L, B,H)
Specifications are subject to change without notice. Changes in specifications may be effected even after receiving confirmed purchase ORDER.


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